PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

discover everything from nature.....

slide 1

knowledge is power

develop scientific approach...

dream big

learning is continuous process....

LEARNING BY DOING

combine experiments and theory....

Sunday, 25 December 2016

successful thinking

CONTINGENCY PLAN




To be a successful person, one must have a contingency plan.  Generally, we use to observe that every one of us will have a plan for that day, it involves - how to spend the day effectively, how to reach workplace safely, what type of dress to wear, how to come back home in time, what should we present in a meeting, etc.  These are all the essential things which should be completed successfully. So, what should we do?  It involves contingency planning - the fundamental meaning of the contingency is that an event that is taking place in future, and another meaning is that a provision for an unforeseen need or necessity.  

Broadly, we can understand that contingency is nothing but a way of preparing.  For each and every activity, contingency will be there.  Generally, when we are going to set a target, we use to see all the possible ways to achieve it.  All of us knowingly or unknowingly, think about the possibilities.  The thinking way is different from one another.  When we look at a successful person, his/her contingency plannings are different from a person who doesn't achieve it.  

****contingency plannings are different for different professions.****

Let us consider a software engineer, who needs to finish his project.  A software engineer should consider his given time to finish the project, he/she should consider some situations where there might a problem of power supply due to different situations, sometimes, there may be some problems in manpower where some of his team members might be absent due to their own problems. These are all the unexpected situations which might occur in his/her project work completion.  So, he/she must go for alternatives.

Let us look at a student, his/her contingency planning should go around his syllabus preparation and going to attend exams.  Never think that everything goes as we planned.  Especially students should concentrate on his health conditions so that the preparation for exams should take place daily, never postpone for tomorrow.  This habit makes him/her to attempt exams confidently.


So, these are all some of the examples to explain what is contingency planning.  It is all about the ability to find and replace alternatives for unexpected things going to take place in future.




Saturday, 24 December 2016

VERB FORMS

Definition: Verb tells us about the activity of a person or a thing, a verb expresses some action or it is also called 'doing' word


Let us learn, the verbs and their different forms


PRESENT (V1)           PAST(V2)          PAST PARTICIPLE (V3)         PRESENT (V1+-s/-es)


call                              called                   called                                         calls
ask                              asked                   asked                                        asks
cook                            cooked                cooked                                      cooks
dance                           danced                danced                                       dances
buy                               bought                bought                                        buys
live                               lived                    lived                                           lives
play                              played                 played                                        plays
do                                did                       done                                          does

draw                            drew                    drawn                                        draws
fly                                 flew                    flown                                         flies
have                             had                     had                                             has
 

comparison of adjectives

The comparison of two things or people will took place in three different ways


1) when the two things are almost equal
2) when the two things are different
3) when we compare more than two things or people

case 1: When the two things or people are equal in some way, then we use as...as with an adjective

case 2: When we want to say how two things or people are different from each other, we use                -er form of an adjective.

case 3: When we want to compare more than two things or persons, then we use -est form of an      adjective

 FORMS OF ADJECTIVES 

POSITIVE      COMPARATIVE           SUPERLATIVE

CLEVER              CLEVERER                CLEVEREST
POOR                 POORER                    POOREST
DARK                 DARKER                    DARKEST
LONG                  LONGER                    LONGEST
HIGH                  HIGHER                     HIGHEST
TALL                   TALLER                      TALLEST
OLD                     OLDER                       OLDEST
BIG                     BIGGER                      BIGGEST
FAT                     FATTER                      FATTEST
HOT                    HOTTER                      HOTTEST
WET                    WETTER                      WETTEST
THIN                  THINNER                     THINNEST
BRAVE                BRAVER                       BRAVEST
LUCKY                LUCKIER                     LUCKIEST
LOVELY               LOVELIER                   LOVELIEST

*******************
the following adjectives will have more and most as prefixes
BEAUTIFUL  MORE BEAUTIFUL MOST BEAUTIFUL
HONEST       MORE HONEST       MOST HONEST
POPULAR     MORE POPULAR     MOST POPULAR
DIFFICULT   MORE DIFFICULT   MOST DIFFICULT 


NOTE: 'THE' is used before superlative degree
            'than' is used after the comparative          degree 

 
 some examples.........

* a lion is bigger than a cheetah
* honey is sweeter than sugar

* a giraffe is taller than an elephant
* a swan is more beautiful than a duck
* The Ganga is the longest river in India
  




communicative english grammar


1. comparison of adjectives



2. verb forms


3.the subject and the predicate


4. the use of v1


5. the use of v2


6. the use of v3

Tuesday, 13 December 2016

success habits - success principles

s . u . c . c . e . s  . s .


1) supple thinking
A person showing suppleness has three different strands.  They are 1) Flexible thinking, 2) very creative, innovative, imaginative thinking 3) ready to receive positively anything.
To get success in the life, a person should have suppleness, a supple thinker, will always go for adopting new situations, faces new obstacles, and quickly adopt to new situations.  Everyday supple thinker updates his/her knowledge.  This character can be compared with roots of the plant.  Roots fed with rich nutrients, this makes to grow the plant taller and taller everyday.  This growth signs the development.  In the same way, supple thinking makes a person to update his knowledge and grow strongly with strong foundation.



The supple thinker creates his own independent platform.  He never agree ignorantly with other's opinion.  Since, whenever a person wants to become sharpen his brain, he/she should not simply accept others ideas.  The supple thinker is open to learning continuously, this helps him/her to face new situations.  To tackle new problems, always go for develop his/her knowledge by learning new things. 
Flexible thinking is necessary to become a supple thinker......


Flexible thinkers will collect various types of data to test and they are very divergent in thinking in order to solve the problems .  These people engage in simultaneous outcomes.  Flexible people will have a dimension of new thinking in order to solve a problem, moreover they go with new approach.  This helps to develop knowledge and creativity.  In the present day societies, one must be very flexible in order to work, with social diversity and we should see to recognize the importance of wholeness and distinctiveness in the sense of how other people think and recognize the problems.

In this context, we should discuss about radiant thinking, radiant thinking people can approach a problem in different approach and in a new angle, radiant thinking people will look for number of solutions for a given problem, by which they can get confident solution, this is very important for each and everyone who wish to be innovative.  These people are very strict followers of the rules and regulations of the society.  Never they violate the rules and regulations.

While solving any problem, we sometimes could not gather full needful information, in those situations also flexible thinkers will fill the gaps with their own idea and go for the solution for the problem, this is very important thing for a successful person.  This can be compared with the discoveries made by the scientists, that is the discovery is not an invention since the scientists just disclosed the things from the nature only.  In the same way, one must be aware that there is a solution for each and every problem.  To gain for one's efforts, one must maintain good relationships with the society and leverage the time.

div style="text-align: justify;"> The conclusion is flexible thinking should be developed from the classroom itself.  The students in this age will be adopted for multiple solutions and they achieve success in their lives.  Each and everyone should use mind mapping technique to have strong result oriented path. 

characteristics ........imagining, creative, innovative........

Each and everyone in the society have all the three characteristics, but these have to be disclosed to new situations and should be applied whenever need.  An ordinary person and a creative person will receive a problem in different way.   A creative person will look for alternatives for a given problem,  a creative person never mind critics and criticism. 
Creativity is different from innovative, innovative thinking involves development, selection of creative ideas,   critical thinking is essential to develop the innovative nature.   One must have critical thinking capacity in accepting or rejecting information by examining thoroughly.  


We can list out the important characteristics of a creative person, they are : always engages in finding a new problem, prefers learning continuously, never tense with ambiguity, take anything positive and playful, poses questions on problems, eager to do work and have a range of interests, prefers taking risks.



success principle.....UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPTS

To have good understanding, one must have a capacity of understanding with good listening, collecting data from all the sources.  A person with good understanding makes less assumptions, which leads to quick result.  An intelligent behavior is one which indicates the ability of listening to to another person.  A good understanding comes from listening and making use of all the sense organs.  Anybody will have good understanding concept, when we see more instead of listening with ears, a psychological concept tells us that one can remember more when we see the things instead of just listening and doing with seeing is the most highest point of receiving data.  Listening with understanding includes a small pause while listening, and before probing one must synthesis the information.  Hence, when we wait for a while before speaking, that reveals our understanding percentage.

h4 style="text-align: justify;"> success principle....CONSTRUCTIVE THINKING
Success depends on perfect constructive thinking capacity, constructive thinking depends on the analysis of past knowledge on various topics, making interdependence on each and every topic.  A constructive thinker asks good questions to understand and think properly. 

success principle....THINKING COURAGEOUSLY

In the journey of achievement, one must take courageous steps, and should have big goals.  In achieving big goals, courageous thinkers take risks, and never afraid of the obstacles they face in the path of achievement.   These courageous people never look back and have patience in completing the task. 

h4 style="text-align: justify;"> success principle.....EXACTNESS
Many people fails in achieving their goals, this is due to the lack of exactness i.e. one must have a good clarity in their goal and do each and every work with 100% accuracy.  An accuracy gives us the clarity and clarity expresses our knowledge on each and every problem. 

success principle.....A GOOD SELF-MANAGEMENT

Management in the sense of work and time.  Unless we have the characteristic of management, never see a success.  Many people go on doing the work, but never have exactness on the time management and work management.  Managing work involves planning, preparation and projecting on our goal.  Self management depends on our self knowledge.  The self management also involves the ability of identifying our knowledge that is thinking on our thinking capacity. 

success principle.....SMILE

In reaching a goal, one must have good sense of humor, smile and humor makes taking a problem easily which decreases stress on us.  When we observe a child, child can laugh so many times more than the same child when he is grown up.  Psychologists stresses on smile to leave the stress.   When we laugh, muscle movements take place and may a sound is produced.  While solving problems, humor makes to feel oneness, each and every one gets good impression on us.  Without feeling hard, a problem can be solved quickly and easily. 
supple thinking, understanding capacity, constructive thinking, courageous thinking, focusing on exactness, time and self management, and smile/humor are very important in achieving everyone's goal.

Monday, 12 December 2016

How to make a Kaleidoscope?

 

 

 

kaleidoscope

Making of KALEIDOSCOPE at home easily

 

What is a Kaleidoscope? Kaleidoscope works on which principle?

 

To understand the working of Kaleidoscope, let us know the property of light i.e. reflection of light.  When a ray incident on a plane mirror, it gets reflected with the same angle, i.e. the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. When we join two plane mirrors at an angle, then the no. of images formed depends on the angle present between them.  The 360 degree angle is divided with given angle and subtracted 1 from it.  Then we get the no. of images formed by plane mirrors when they are at certain angle.

The same principle is applied in a Kaleidoscope, that is two or three plane mirrors are attached at certain angle, and one end is covered with a transparent cover and another end with a cardboard, a hole is made in the top of the cardboard to view inside it.  When we place some colorful objects inside it, then there will be multiple reflections inside it, and when we view through the hole then we feel happy due to wonderful images formed.

 

materials required:

1) two or three same size rectangular mirrors, 

2) tape

3)  cardboard sheet

4) transparent plastic cover 

5) glue

6) colorful objects like colored glass

procedure:

Make a triangular tube containing three plane mirrors attached with plastic tape. Then, one end is covered with plastic cover, and placed some coloured glass pieces inside it and cover another end with a cardboard sheet consists a small hole.

Now kaleidoscope is ready to use.  One can view from cardboard end, then we see beautiful patterns.

 

precautions:

1) plane mirrors are at suitable angles.

2) light should pass through the cover

3) should be placed some colored glass pieces

 






 

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Sunday, 11 December 2016

How to convert potatoes as voltaic cell?

 

 

lemon/potato battery

potatoes can be used as cell or battery

 
introduction:
 
As per our knowledge, a cell is an electrical device which is used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy.  Hence, when we are using a cell, initially the chemical energy is utilized to produce electricity.  In a simple electrical circuit, we use to observe, a cell, connectors, a bulb like energy utilizer, and a switch.  When we close the circuit, that is by pressing the key, the current starts flowing through the conductors and bulb starts glowing, hence the closed electrical circuit can conduct the electricity, but all the closed circuits do not have electricity flow.  That means, the battery or cell should have chemical energy.  In our daily life, only cell alone can produce chemical energy or any natural substances can produce electricity? That is our discussion.  In this experiment, we are going to take potatoes as the producers of electricity.  The meaning is potatoes are used as cells or batteries. 
 
 
procedure:
 
The constituents of the cell are electrolyte, two electrodes anode and cathode, conductor wire, a bulb.  In a primary voltaic cell, dil. sulphuric acid is used as electrolyte, and zinc and copper plates act as electrodes.  Zinc acts as anode that is the electrons are migrated from zinc plate to copper plate through the dil. sulphuric acid solution.  Hence, copper plate acts as cathode, the potatoes acts like the solution of dil. sulphuric acid, zinc and copper plates are used for producing electricity from potatoes.
 
materials required:
 
1) 8 small potatoes, 2) 8 strips of copper and zinc 3) conductor (copper wire) 4) a bulb of 5v.
 
how to prepare a circuit?
 
In each potato, insert a zinc and copper strips, connect with wires, such that potato acts as electrolyte.  Hence, we should take care of the circuit such that it should be a closed circuit, in order to utilize the electrical energy, we should connect a bulb as energy consumer.  Use a table, to place all these materials and make visible. 
 
In between a bulb and wires, connect a switch to open or close the circuit.  Hence, we close the circuit by pressing the switch, current starts flowing and bulb starts glowing. 
 

alternative method:

one can use lemons instead of potatoes, replace the potatoes with lemons and the remaining connections are as usual.  Here, lemons are used as electrolyte. 
 
precautions:
 
1) don't insert two copper strips or zinc strips in a single potato or lemon.
2) don't connect wire to copper and zinc strip in the same potato.
3) make sure a series connection of arrangement.
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS - BASIC CONCEPTS

INTRODUCTION:


What is light? Light is the energy emitted by the excited atoms which can cause the sensation of vision in a human eye, hence light is a form of radiant energy.


What is optics? The branch of physics which deals with the phenomena concerning light is called optics .

We can classify the optics into : 1) Geometrical optics 2) Physical optics.

What is Geometrical optics? The study involves, the light is considered as moving along a straight line as moving along straight line as a ray. A ray of light gives the direction of light. When the light meets a surface which separates two media, reflection and refraction take place.

What is Physical optics? Physical optics deals with the theories of light and explains all the phenomena such as reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarisation, and rectilinear propagation.


Definitions:

a) a ray: A ray is nothing but, the path along which light travels is called a ray.

 b) a beam: A bundle of rays is called a beam.

 c) a pencil: A narrow beam is called a pencil of light

types of objects:

REAL OBJECTS: From a point, if two or more incident rays actually emanate or seem to emanate.

VIRTUAL OBJECT: If the rays are intercepted by an optical element, then the point of convergence is a virtual point behind the optical element.


 In general, we can say that an object is real when two rays emanate or diverge from a point, and an object is virtual when two incident rays seem to converge to that point

Saturday, 10 December 2016

making crystals

How to make crystals of a solution?

 

Introduction:

 One can identify that there is a definite shape to any crystal.  In this experiment, we can prepare a crystalline form of sodium chloride, copper sulphate or sodium nitrate or nickel sulphate. In any of the crystalline preparation, we should prepare a saturated solution.

 

materials required:  

 1) distilled water

2) plate

3) thread

4) a beaker of 200 ml

5) a glass rod

procedure: 

 Let us consider that we are going to prepare copper sulphate crystals, for that take some copper sulphate powder and mix it with hot water about 50 ml.  Make it a saturated solution, by stirring thoroughly with glass rod.  

Take the saturated solution of little quantity into a plate, and wait for certain time, till small crystals formed in the plate.  Using a thread, tie a fine crystal from it, and keep in the copper sulphate solution.   Wait for several days till the water gets evaporated from the beaker, we are going to observe that the seed crystal becomes larger crystal.

 

precautions:

 

1) don't disturb the solution 

2) wait for required time till crystal is formed.

3) stir the solution to make saturated solution

 

note: try to prepare some more crystallline structures of NaCl, etc. 

 



 

making a clinometer

clinometer
clinometer

How to make a clinometer?

 

 

 

 


introduction:



Generally, we use to measure an angle with the help of a protractor.  But, the protractor alone can't be used for measuring the height of building or a tree or a tower.  By using a clinometer, one can measure the height of any building or height of a tower, or height of a tower.  The clinometer is basically used by surveyors and engineers belongs to civil branch.  The clinometer consists of a weight attached to a piece of string hangs from the sighting device.  When the clinometer is tilted upward to view the top of the building, the string moves across a protractor like face and indicates the angle of inclination.  

construction of a clinometer:


materials required: 1 protractor, a piece of thread, 1 nail of length about 2.5 cm (for weight),



working procedure: Make a tiny hole at the center of the base line on the protractor, pass the taken thread through the hole, tie one end of the thread with nail, and another end should tie a knot in one end.  The angle shown by the nail is 90 degree when the protractor is held with its straight edge horizontal and upside. Now the clinometer is ready which can be used for measuring the height of a building or a tree.



How to find the heights?

step 1: Measure the distance from the place where you stand to the base of the building

step 2: To find the height of the building, You look along the top edge of the clinometer, focus to top of the building, allow the thread to move freely around the scale of the protractor.

step 3: The angle shown by the nail is equal to the angle which the building makes the horizon.

step 4: By using the formula, h=dtan(angle), by taking the value of the angle, and distance between you and the building, multiplying the tangent degree and distance, one can find the height of the building or a tower.


precautions:

1. take the angle properly.

2. distance should be measured accurately.

3. one can use a stand to fix the clinometer.

Wednesday, 7 December 2016

A SENSOR TO IDENTIFY pH OF BLOOD



pH sensor

A TINY BLOOD pH SENSOR DEVELOPED BY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KHARAGHPUR students



IIT Kharagpur researchers have successfully developed tiny device to measure the pH of blood.  The device works by measuring the imedance.  The device relies on venous blood sampling for pH measurement. 

The pH of a solution is a measure of the percentage  of hydrogen ions  available in a solution.  The solution is said to be  acidic, if  the pH will be less than 7.  The device was able to detect the pH of the blood in 10 seconds.

SOURCE: THE HINDU 

states of matter


GAS-LIQUID-SOLID 


STATES OF MATTER : 




We use to observe that the matter will be in three states.  They are solid state, liquid state, and gaseous state. The state can be changed with the effect of pressure and temperature.  The temperature can be increased by increasing heat energy.  Heat energy is a different energy from other types of energies since, the heat is transmitted from higher temperature body to lower temperature body.  Whereas, the temperature is the intensity of the heat energy.  For example, when we touch an object, if we feel it is cold, the meaning is that the person who touched the object, the heat energy is transmitted from him/her to the object, then we feel very cool.  When we gain certain heat energy, we feel more hot.  In this way, the heat energy is the energy which is transferred only due to the differences in the temperatures or different intensities of heat energy.


SOLID STATE OF THE MATTER

If we observe, an ice cube, the water is in solid state.  In any solid state of a matter, the molecules or atoms are very close and we don't observe any space between each atoms.  There is no enough space between the atoms, there is a strong attractive force present between them.  No other particle can place in between the atoms of the solid substances.   

Due to these properties, solids have a definite shape, definite volume, definite mass.

LIQUID STATE OF THE MATTER

Water is an example for liquid state of the matter.  Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they posses definite volume.  Liquid state can be achieved by heating a solid state of the matter.  As we are increasing the temperature by supplying the heat energy, the atoms are going away from each other and they acquire space in between the atoms.  Hence, the strength of attraction is decreased, we can add some particles like sugar in between the atoms of the liquid. So, there is no definite shape.

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GASEOUS STATE OF THE MATTER

Water vapor is an example of the gaseous state of the matter, the atoms are very far away from each other, there is a lot of gap between the particles.  These gaseous particles move very easily and they can be compressed easily.  We can compress a large volume of gas in a cylinder.


arithmetic reasoning questions

1) 121, 225,361,?
2) 9,11,20,31,?82
3)35,7,36,14,37,21,?
4)1,2,8,14,?,34
5)2,3,5,7,11,?17
6)3,12,27,48,75,108
7)2,1,2,4,4,5,6,7,8,8,10,11,?
8)2,5,26,677,?
9)0,7,26,63,?
10)2,15,4,80,?

Tuesday, 22 November 2016

greatest common divisor

GCD


A divisor is another name of factor.  A factor is a number which divides a given number completely with leaving a reminder zero.

Let us find all the factors of 10

Number 10 is divided by 1,2,5,10, So these four numbers are the factors of 10.

Let us take another example of 20

Number 20 is divided by 1,2,4,5,10,20

Now we are going to find out the great common divisor of 10,20

let us take all the common factors of 10 & 20

1,2,5,10

Among the common factors of 10 & 20, the greatest number which is factor to both the 10, 20 is 10.

Hence the greatest common divisor of 10, 20 is 10.

The meaning is 10 is only the number which divides equally both 10,20.









Friday, 18 November 2016

least common multiple

least common multiple is the lowest number among the common multiples of the given numbers


for example.....


finding LCM of 2,4
solution:


step 1... Write all multiples of 2 and 4
step 2.... Write all the common multiples
step 3....write the lowest of common multiples


then the answer is ...

latest topics on physics

LATEST TOPICS ON PHYSICS/TECHNOLOGY

Thursday, 17 November 2016

USES OF PLANE AND CONCAVE MIRRORS







uses of plane mirror


1. Plane mirrors are used as looking glass.

2. Plane mirrors are used by barbers to show front and back side of the customer head

3. Plane mirrors are used by scouts for signalling and also for army personnel.

4. Plane mirrors are used by the opticians to provide false dimension when their place of work is very small.

5. Plane mirrors are used for providing false dimensions in displaying jewellery, show cases, wrist watches, etc. These plane mirrors are fixed such that their mirrors are opposite to each other.

6. When the plane mirrors are opposite to each one, then they form multiple images, which makes a person happy by looking multiple images.

7. Plane mirrors are also used in cooking where the solar cookers are used.

8. Plane mirrors are used in making kaleidoscope. 



uses of concave mirrors



1. concave mirrors are also used in solar cookers.

2. concave mirrors are used as a shaving mirror. The fundamental principle is when the object is in between pole of mirror and principal focus, then the image formed is virtual and erect and magnified (enlarged) image is formed, in this way the person image gets magnified.

3. Concave mirrors are also used as reflectors, generally concave mirrors are used in cars, trucks, motor bikes, in all these bikes, the bulb is placed at the principal focus of the concave reflector then a powerful parallel beam of light is formed.

4. Concave mirrors are used by doctors, especially by the doctors where we undergo examination for ear, throat, nose, teeth, etc.  We observe at dentists, these are used to see the back of the tooth by placing it behind the tooth.  Then a virtual, erect and enlarged image is formed. 

Wednesday, 16 November 2016

electric motor






 how to make an electric motor at home easily


INTRODUCTION:

          Electric current is nothing but net amount of charge flowing through unit area of cross section of a conductor per unit time.  As we know that electrons possess negative charge that is electrons are negatively charged particles.  When these electrons are flowing through any electrical conductor, there is a development of magnetic field surrounding to the conductor. When this conductor is placed in any external magnetic field, then there is action of magnetic force on the conductor.  This force causes the moment of the conductor in the magnetic field.  This principle is applied in an electric motor.  In this motor, instead of a single long conductor, we use to take a rectangular coil, which is usually placed in a strong magnetic field.  This coil is rotated in the magnetic field, due to the flow of current.  Which is usually rotated in magnetic field, this rotation of coil is utilized as mechanical energy.  This mechanical energy is utilized for various purposes at home. 

     This concept reveals electromagnetic induction.  As discussed, when electric current passes through the coil, magnetic field is developed, and the coil also acts like a magnet. The two faces of the coil acts like magnetic poles, on one side it acts like a north pole and another side it acts like a south pole.  Hence, the current passing coil acts like a magnet. 

Materials required:
1)      A  Wooden platform
2)      9v battery
3)      Metallic strips
4)      Non insulated copper wire
5)      Key to on/off the circuit


Procedure:motor diagram.bmp



The  circuit diagram consists of the construction part of electric motor.  Take a 9v battery, connect to the metallic strips which is connected to a circular coil and the two ends of the circular coil are connected to the metallic strips.  Above the battery, a strong magnet should be placed.

Working: When the circuit is closed, the current starts flowing through the metallic strips.  The coil acts like a strong magnet consisting two poles, and this is repelled by the external magnet, with which the net force acts on the coil, by which the coil gets rotated, the continuous rotation of coil is utilized in our daily life as electric water motor, water pump, mixture, etc. 

USES:

Electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, this principle is applied in our daily life at different situations.