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combine experiments and theory....

Tuesday, 12 March 2019



1. Magnification : m = -v/u  or m=hi/ho

2. Mirror formula, 1/f = 1/u + 1/v

3. focal length f = R/2

4. Lens formula 1/f = 1/v - 1/u

5. Lens makers fomula :  1/f = (n-1) (1/R1 - 1/R2)

6. The relation between refractive indices of media, object distance, image distance, and radius of curvature is given by :

                                       n2/v - n1/u = (n2-n1)/R
7. In case of plane mirrors, R, F are infinity, then the power is equal to zero.

                                        n2/v  = n1/u

8. The refractive index of prism is 
                 n = sin{[A+D]/2}/SIN [A/2]

9. Speed of wave is , v = Frequency x wavelength

10. snell's law is n1sini = n2sinr

11. A + d = i1 + i2



Where is the image formed when 8 cm tall object is placed at 20 cm. in front of a concave mirror with focal length 5 cm.  Find out the size of the image also.


A 10 cm tall object is placed in front of a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm, Find out the image distance and write its characteristics .


10 cm focal length concave mirror is placed at 40 cm, from a wall.  Calculate the object distance such that its image is formed on the wall.


In front of 15 cm focal length concave mirror, an object is placed at 30 cm, if the object is displaced through 10 cm towards mirror, calculate by how much distance the image is displaced?


The image is formed behind the mirror, at a distance of 10 cm, when an object is placed at 20 cm in front of it.  Identify the type of mirror used and also calculate the focal length.  


1. Electric current i = Q/t

2. Potential difference,  V =  W/Q

3. Resistance R = (Resistivity * length)/Area  

4. Resistance R=V/I

5. Electric power P = V * I

6. P=V2/R

7. CONDUCTIVITY = 1/Resistivity

8. Resistors connected in series, R = R1 + R2 + R3 +.....

9. Resistors connected in parallel  1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3.......


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1. If you are using an electric lamp and it lights for 6 hours and the current drawn by it is 0.24 A. Then calculate the amount of charge flowing through the lamp.  

2. A circuit consists of five resistors, 10 ohm, 20 ohm, 30 ohm, 40 ohm, 50 ohm, your aim is to decrease the effective resistance using the given resistors, then how do you connect them and calculate the resultant resistance.

3. Suppose that you are using a water heater to heat the water having resistance of 90 ohm, and connected to 240 v. p.d. Determine the current flowing through the water heater.

4. Calculate the number of units when 50w, 60w, 80w electrical appliances are being used daily for 2 hours for 30 days. 

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Wednesday, 6 February 2019


Are you ready? ...........


1. Predict, Which mirror is used as rear view mirror ? 

2. What is the unit of the power of the lens? Define one dioptre.

3. Suppose that a person is using a concave mirror for shaving, Where should he place his face in front of the mirror?

4. Explain the refraction of light at plane surface and curved surface? When a ray of light passes from a denser medium to rarer medium which angle is greater ? Explain.

5. Guess to get always an erect and diminished image, which mirror should be used whether convex mirror or concave mirror ? Why?

6. Suppose your friend is using a lens with power is -1D, What does it denote?

7. When you are using a spherical mirror, the magnification produced by a mirror is -2, +2, Explain the characteristics of the mirror.

8. Predict, the path of the reflected ray, when a ray of light is incident on a concave mirror along its principal axis and find the angle of reflection.

. 9.Which mirror and lens makes the  paper to catch fire when focused to sunlight?


1. Give a few examples for acids and bases.

2. Write the properties of acids and bases

3. What are the indicators used to test whether a substance is acid 
or a base?

4. What are the materials required to understand the reaction between acids,bases and metals?

5. Write the observations from the experiment - reaction of acids with carbonates?

6. List out the salts and their formulas

7. How many types of salts are there

8. What do you understand from the reactions between metal oxides and acids ? 

9. Predict the result when non-metal oxides reacted with bases.

10. Write the importance of pH value in your daily life

11. When do you say a process is chloro-alkali process?

12. How can you say that a wet blue litmus paper is used to test the acidic property instead of a dry litmus paper?


1. What is the difference between skeltal chemical equation and balanced chemical equation?

2. Give an example for precipitation reaction and double displacement reaction.

3. Understand the following chemical equation and identify X and Y.
                  X + Barium Chloride -----> Y + Sodium Chloride

4. If the products in a chemical equaion are Mn and Al2O3, then predict the reactants in that equation.

5. If the reactants are Carbon dioxide and Water, then guess the products and balance the chemical equation.

6. Balance the chemical equation when Pb(NO3)2 (aq) reacted with KI (aq).


1. Name the defect of vision in person ....whose far point is less than infinity?

2. Define spectrum?

3. Give reason why the sky look blue?

4. Predict why the sky appear black for an astronaut?

5. Write the nature of eye lens?

6. What are the conditions to occur dispersion of light?

7. Predict the defect when a person can see only objects beyond      2m. from his eyes.

8. Suppose your friend's far point of the eye gets reduced,  name     his eye defect.

9. Why does ray of light splits when passed through prism?

10. Calculate the Angle of prism, whose refractive index is 1.5 and angle of minimum deviation is equal to angle of prism.

11. Draw the emergent ray, incident ray, refracted ray when a light ray passes through a prism.



1. Explain electromagnetic spectrum.

2. What is the relation between E, h, frequency

3. Write the units of planck's constant.

4. Explain the progress of explanation on structure of atom

5. What is the importance of Quantum numbers and write the quantum numbers for an electron which is in 4th orbit's s orbital.

6. Where and when do you apply different principles used while writing electronic configuration.

7. Write the energy levels of different orbitals in ascending order and give the reason why the electron does not enter into 3d instead of 4s


1. Define atomic mass and atomic number.

2. How the atomic mass was used earlier for scientists to classify the elements.  Do all these laws valid or not?

3. Which is said to be modern law classification of elements. Explain

4. How can you identify the group and period of a given element.

5. What are the properties of atom.  Explain the variations and factors affecting the properties.

6. How can you say a block is s-block, p-block, d-block, f-block?

7. Describe the metallic and non-metallic property of the elements.

8. List out the Lanthanides and actinides.


1. Write the units for electric current, charge, emf, potential difference, work done, magnetic flux, magnetic induction.

2. How electricity and magnetism are related.

3. Explain the working of a battery and when do you say a battery is able to convert chemical energy into electric energy.

4. Describe in your own words about a conductor when it is in open and closed circuit.

5. What are the differences between emf and potential difference.  When emf will be potential difference? Do they equal or not?

6. Draw a circuit diagram consists of three resistors, one battery, a plug key.

7. Solve the net current using Kirchoff's laws. 

8. Apply Kirchoff's voltage or loop law to find out unknown resistance or unknown current flowing through the circuit.

9. Write all the factors affecting the resistance of a conductor, write the ohm's law and how do you verify experimentally?

10. What is electromagnetic induction? How Lenz's law related to it.

11. Explain Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

12. Write the differences among when the current is flowing through a straight conductor, circular coil and a solenoid.

13. What are the parts present in an electric motor and dynamo.

14. Can you produce electricity from a motor?

15. Write the differences between a.c. dynamo and d.c. dynamo.

16. How oersted's experiment is helpful to understand the relation between electricity and magnetism.